Ptolemy Rule and the Egyptian Priesthood

Priests have always had an important role in ancient Egypt as stewards of the Egyptian religion. However when Egypt was ruled by the Ptolemies, the role of temples and the Egyptian priesthood grew: religiously, politically, and economically. The Ptolemies were foreign rulers who needed the support of the priests and temples in order to legitimatize their rule. In turn, priests honored the role the pharaohs had and enjoyed the privileges that they were given. Both the Ptolemies and the priests needed each other to survive in Egypt. It was this relationship that ushered a relatively stable rule in Greco-Egypt.                

Greek rule in Egypt began with the arrival of Alexander the Great in 332 BCE.[1] During his brief stay in Egypt, he ordered the repairs of temples that were destroyed during the Persian occupation, as a way of gaining the favor of the Egyptian priesthood.[2] After he died and his general, Ptolemy I, took power, he and his descendants of the Ptolemaic dynasty made a continuous effort to build new temples in order to cement relations with the priesthood.[3] The Ptolemies kept many of the Egyptian religious, cultural and architectural elements during their rule; however they also added new Greek elements such as the Greek/Egyptian hybrid god Serapis, which was created during the time of Ptolemy I.[4] Serapis combined the aspects of the Greek gods Zeus, Dionysos, Asklepios, and the Egyptian gods Apis and Osiris.[5] Although Serapis had foreign Greek elements to his design, he was popular with Egyptians as well as Greeks.[6] There were also decrees that priests would make that would praise the different Ptolemy rulers for their contribution to new temples and for their great rule over Egypt.[7]

In addition, these types of decrees would also legitimize dynastic cults, such as in the case with the Canopus Decree in 238 BCE, which elevated Ptolemaic princess Berenike into a dynastic cult goddess.[8]  Under the Ptolemies, dynastic cults that worshiped the Ptolemaic kings and queens began to multiply.[9] The most notable was the goddess cult of Arsinoe II, established by her husband Ptolemy II.[10] Her sister Philotera also had a cult dedicated to her, and her husband Philadelphos popularized the cult by minting coins with ram horns on her portrait, signifying her connection with the god Amun.[11] Never had dynastic cults appeared in Egypt and the cults established the worship of the Ptolemaic royal family, which represented the state.[12] It created loyalty among the priesthood and citizens and strengthened the Ptolemies’ rule over Egypt.[13]

Beginning with the Ptolemies, queens had more prominent roles in religious affairs, such as in temple art where they were giving offerings to the gods beside their kingly husbands.[14] It had been theorized that this was done by the Ptolemaic pharaohs as a way to encourage the worship and growth of dynastic cults in order to legitimize their rule.[15] Queens of the Ptolemaic rulers became more involved in religious administration than previous Egyptian dynasties.[16]  They began to have royal queen titles, which had rarely been given to queens in earlier dynasties, which gave them more importance to the priesthood.[17] Ptolemaic queens, such as Berenike II, had been shown alongside their husbands as equals in temple art.[18] They had even been given the title of priestess, giving them the same rank as their husbands who acted as the high priest of Egypt.[19]

Alexander the Great was the first of the Greek kings to be crowned at Memphis, but the Ptolemies continued the tradition which had begun in the Old Kingdom.[20] This tradition linked the new rulers with the high priests at Memphis, showing that they were willing to listen to their religious authority and uphold the pervious traditions of Egypt.[21] The Ptolemies also continued with Alexander’s strategy of being directly linked with the Egyptian god Amun, as well as being descendents of the Greek god Zeus.[22] It not only gave them legitimacy in the eyes of both the Greeks and Egyptians but it also gave them power in the eyes of the Egyptian priesthood by continuing previous dynastic traditions.[23] The Ptolemies also began giving themselves more complex royal titles after the reign of Ptolemy III.[24] Their use of the Egyptian god Ptah, the god that replaced Amun as the god of the pharaohs, in their titles illustrated how powerful the priesthood had become by having the Ptolemies embrace Egyptian religion.[25]

In pre-Ptolemy Egypt, the pharaoh’s role in society was not only of political authority but also of religious authority as well.[26] The pharaoh was divine in status and was considered the “Son of Re”, the Egyptian sun god.[27] He also functioned as high priest at temples.[28] Due to their divine status, pharaohs would be involved not only in founding temples, but also would be responsible for maintaining temples and for ritual offerings for the gods and participating in festivals.[29] However while pharaohs did participate in festivals and ceremonies, much of the rulers’ religious responsibilities were symbolic and the regular temples duties would be done by temple priests.[30] Pharaohs would also symbolically give the gods a figurine of the goddess Maat, who “represented truth, order, balance, correctness, justice, cosmic harmony and other qualities which precisely embodied the responsibility of the king’s role”.[31]

Like Alexander the Great, the Ptolemies that came after his rule appealed to the priesthood of Egypt to gain their favor.[32] The Ptolemies participated in the ritual of sacrificing to the Egyptian god Apis at Memphis, a ritual that was very important to the priesthood there.[33]  The Ptolemaic rulers also brought back statues of Egyptian gods that had been stolen by the previous rulers, the Persians, in order to cement themselves as the protectors of Egyptian religion.[34] The series of Syrian wars were given support by the Egyptian priesthood as the military campaigns brought back their religious idols back from Persian lands.[35] In 274 B.C.E, Ptolemy II had a festival celebrating the victory of the First Syrian War, inviting Egyptian priests to the revelry.[36] The priesthood and the Ptolemies were very much interconnected and both depended on each other for their continued existence.[37]

The Ptolemies also built new temples during their reign to appease the Egyptian priesthood.[38] Alexander built a temple dedicated to Isis in Alexandria, which Ptolemy I later completed.[39] Ptolemy II was well known for the construction of the Isis temple at Philae, the Isis temple at Bahbeit el-Hagar, and the Onuris-Shu temple at Sebennytos during his reign.[40] His son, Ptolemy III, also was a prolific builder, who was most famous for the construction of the Horus temple at Edfu.[41] Priests would also use the wealth they gained from land revenue to pay for temple constructions as well.[42]  The building of the temples, especially during the beginning of the Ptolemaic dynasty, was to develop ties with the priesthood and establish good relations with them.[43]

In the Rosetta Stone, Ptolemy V was praised by the priests of Memphis for his work and contributions for the kingdom.[44] They first give his family proper tribute by listing their royal titles and their deeds before listing Ptolemy V’s works.[45] He gave “much money and much grain to the temples of Egypt” as well as building new temples and reducing taxes.[46] He also increased the endowments of temples and allowed them to keep the produce they cultivated in temple lands.[47] He also increased spending in the Egyptian military “in order to ensure that the temples and the people who were in Egypt should be secure” and donated goods for the gods in Egyptian temples.[48] Lastly, in thanks for Ptolemy V’s generosity, the temple priests created a cult in his honor, with temple festivals, offerings, and temple art.[49] The Rosetta Stone was an important firsthand account of how the Ptolemies and the Egyptian priesthood had a mutual appreciation and respect for each other, as long as they both upheld their duties to one another.[50]

High priests would represent the pharaoh in temple duties, such as offerings for the gods and the washing of god statues.[51] Their title was the “first servant of god” and they were appointed by the pharaoh.[52] The position of high priest also became a hereditary one, although there were attempts to break the practice.[53] High priests lived either close to the temple or in the temple itself.[54] Below the high priests were part-time priests who lived off of temple grounds.[55] Both types of priests however would be paid for their services through the food offerings that were given to the gods of the temple and through land that was granted to temples.[56] Along with the priests, there were other occupations within the temple system.[57] Farmers, shepherds, and beekeepers provided the temple with food and sacrificial animals by using temple owned lands.[58]  Scribes and clerks were vital occupations for the temple administration and artisans would provide art for the temples and as offerings for the gods.[59] Those who offered their services and goods to the temples would receive in return offerings that were given to the temple as in  come or would keep some of their own goods such as grain to keep for themselves.[60]

Priests would lease land to farmers and would measure how much land would be available for food production by using the Nilometers at the temples, in order to check the level of the Nile River.[61] Workers employed by the temples would help with irrigation by building canals as well as helping with the harvest on temple lands.[62] The temples were not only important in terms of religious society, but they were an important part of Egypt’s economy and social structure as well, which is why the Ptolemies wanted to foster good relations with the priesthood.[63] Due to this very reason, rulers during the Ptolemaic period granted priests more land for their temples, which needed more expansions to feed temple workers.[64] Temples were also popular places for the people of Egypt.[65] Temple festivals acted as meeting places for communities, as well as places to seek oracles, and medical aid.[66] Temples also acted as a place of refuge for those who wanted to escape the law and for those who wanted to devote themselves to their faith.[67]

Temples were also an institution for learning.[68] In major temples there would be a section called the “House of Life” where scribes would create and copy texts.[69] A multitude of subjects were transmitted and studied in temple libraries: “mythology, liturgy, iconography, arithmetic, geometry, law, medicine, astronomy, the interpretation of dreams, the study of the Nile,” as well as the “geography, topography, history, and philology” of Egypt.[70] During the Ptolemaic era, priests would also consult Greek scholars in order to add to their vast array of knowledge.[71] It was during the reign of the Ptolemies that priests began the practice of meeting in annual synods where they discussed politics, religion, and religious cults with politicians.[72] A high priest’s function was also that he was a representative of the Egyptian people to the gods, a right granted to him by the pharaoh.[73]

The Egyptian clergy were thought of in a positive light among Greek philosophers and scientists.[74] The Egyptian priesthood was thought of as “a source of the sciences, wisdom, and philosophy, and even of an incomparable model of devotion and morality”.[75] Subjects relating to Egyptian sciences, religion, and philosophy could be found in Alexandria’s Museum, illustrating Greek intellectuals did have a key interest in the Egyptian priesthood.[76] This was especially important in the relationship between the Ptolemies and the priesthood, as this respect for the Egyptian clergy also was passed on to the Greek rulers and gave the Egyptian priesthood a favorable advantage among both Greek elite and the Ptolemies.[77]

It can also be argued that the Egyptian priesthoods were major contributors and keepers of Egyptian culture.[78]  It was the Egyptian religious system, with its temples and priesthoods, united Egyptians to a common culture despite being ruled by a foreign Greek power.[79] The priesthood itself also had economic and political power.[80] They were well organized with their own temples and hierarchies, and their temples often became the centers of metropoleis nomes.[81] Not only did the clergy own land around the temples but they also played an important role in “maintaining theological education and scribal traditions, practicing the sciences, mathematics and medicine”.[82] The Ptolemies themselves also assigned Egyptian priests to the positions of royal scribes in the dynasty’s administration, as was in the case of Petosiris, an Egyptian high priest who was alleviated to that position.[83] Petrosiris also served as the royal secretary, as an administrator for the upper nomes, and as the administrator for the Egyptian god Thoth.[84] He personally answered to the pharaoh himself and Petrosiris’s example illustrates the power that individual priests and their administration had in shaping their relationship with the elite.[85]

The priests were also popular with the native Egyptians. The Egyptian peasants were distrustful of the Greek authorities and the priesthood, who could not tend their land, offered peasants an opportunity to work their land.[86] Priests of lower status also served Greek business owners as hired help, like their peasant counterparts.[87] In one instance, a priest worked for an oil maker and in another, a priest worked as a donkey driver.[88] Priests could serve both as high administrators and as menial labor, demonstrating that they had multiple roles in society.[89] The relationship between the priesthood, the peasantry, and the ruling class was a multilayered one.

The priesthood had not always been a passive supporter of the Ptolemaic rule. While it has been argued that their alliance with the Ptolemies helped to pacify the native Egyptian population and ease into their new allegiance to the Greek rulers, the Egyptian clergy had also been responsible for rebellions against the Ptolemies.[90] In one notable example, the priesthood in Thebes during the reign of Ptolemy IX Soter II rebelled against the Ptolemies and tried to form its own separate kingdom, only to be defeated and the priesthood dismantled by the Ptolemies.[91]

Even with the occasional rebellion, the priests and their administration were given legal protection under the Ptolemies.[92]  There were decrees that promised “that the sacred land and the revenues of the sanctuaries will remain the property of the temples, and that no one will have the right to appropriate the lands, their management, or the sacred revenues”.[93] In addition, the priests were also protected against thieves that wanted to steal temple items, torture, and the “cornering of sacred lands or revenues of temples and religious associations”.[94] Lastly, the decrees also protect priests retroactively for minor crimes.[95] However bureaucrats still took advantage of their power and subjected the priesthood to “usurpation of royal and sacred land, extortion of money (including by torture), contributions raised for personal benefit, illegal requisition of housing, requisition of supplies for the benefit of the official, including domestic animals, fine cloth or boats, and organization of private judicial system founded on arbitrary arrest”.[96]  In the document, The ‘recluses’ of the Great Serapeum at Memphis, a group of Serapis devotees were staying at the Serapeum, where they were performing temple tasks.[97] However as documented in the letter to the stragtegos, the local governor, the devotees were attacked by the temple cleaners with stones and sticks.[98] The man who penned the letter suspected that they were beaten because they were Greek and asked for justice to be served, as the last time he had asked, nothing was done.[99] Violence in temples was a very real situation and the governors and other government officials did not always solve complaints.[100] Injustices like these created tension between the Greek elite and the Egyptian priest class, making them competitors for land, goods, and resources.[101]

However for all its support by the pharaohs and elites, the Egyptian priesthood’s power began to decline in the Ptolemaic era.[102] The Ptolemaic kings began having more power over temples than the priesthood, which had traditionally been under their care.[103] Temples themselves began to fall into neglect, increasingly needing more repairs.[104] Private ownership of become more popular under the Ptolemies, as did migration into more urban areas, leaving the priesthood with less land and less peasants to work their temple owned lands.[105] While this left the Egyptian priesthood in a vulnerable state, Greeks maintained their power in Ptolemy Egypt and the decline of the power of the Egyptian priesthood continued into the Roman era.[106]

The Ptolemaic era was founded on the concept of mutual partnership between ruler and the Egyptian priesthood. The priesthood was the center of Egyptian society and if the Ptolemies wanted longevity for their dynasty, they had to appease the priesthood. They did so by building temples and taking on Egyptian traditions, which showed the priesthood that they respected the order of Egyptian culture and society.[107] In return, Egyptian priests maintained dynastic cults, the Egyptian economy, and their duties as priests to hold the fabric of Egyptian society together and to show respect for their new rulers.[108] While the relationship between priests and the Ptolemies unraveled towards the end of the dynasty, it had remained the backbone of the Ptolemy reign in Egypt.[109]

Bibliography

  1. Arnold Dieter, Lanny Bell, Ragnhild Bjerre Finnestad, Gerhard Haeny, Byron E. Shafer. Temples of Ancient Egypt. Edited by Byron E. Shafer. Cornell University Press: New York, 1997.
  2. Austin, Michel M. The Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest: A Selection of Ancient Sources in Translation. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  3. Bingen, Jean. Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture. Edited by Roger S. Bagnall. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007.
  4. Holbl, Gunther. A History of Ptolemaic Empire. Translated by Tina Saavedra. Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001.
  5. S. Simpson, Demotic Grammar in the Ptolemaic Sacerdotal Decrees, “The Rosetta Stone”, Translated by R.S. Simpson, (Oxford, Griffith Institute, 1996), pp. 258-71, http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/articles/r/the_rosetta_stone_translation.aspx.
  6. Wilkinson, Richard H. The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000.

 

[1] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 27.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 85.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 87.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 95.

[10] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 101-102.

[11] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 103.

[12] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 95.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Arnold Dieter, Lanny Bell, Ragnhild Bjerre Finnestad, Gerhard Haeny, Byron E. Shafer, Temples of Ancient Egypt, edited by Byron E. Shafer, (Cornell University Press: New York, 1997), 229.

[15] Arnold Dieter, Lanny Bell, Ragnhild Bjerre Finnestad, Gerhard Haeny, Byron E. Shafer, Temples of Ancient Egypt, edited by Byron E. Shafer, (Cornell University Press: New York, 1997), 231.

[16] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 85.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 77-78.

[21] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 78.

[22] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 78-79.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 80.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 86.

[27] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 88.

[28] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 89.

[29] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 86.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 88.

[32] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 81.

[33] Ibid.

[34] Ibid.

[35] Ibid.

[36] Ibid.

[37] Ibid.

[38] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 86.

[39] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 85.

[40] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 86-87.

[41] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 87.

[42] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 90.

[43] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 87-88.

[44]  R.S. Simpson, Demotic Grammar in the Ptolemaic Sacerdotal Decrees, “The Rosetta Stone”, Translated by R.S. Simpson, (Oxford, Griffith Institute, 1996), pp. 258-71, http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/articles/r/the_rosetta_stone_translation.aspx.

[45] Ibid.

[46] Ibid.

[47] Ibid.

[48] Ibid.

[49] Ibid.

[50] Ibid.

[51] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 87.

[52] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 92.

[53] Ibid.

[54] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 91.

[55] Ibid.

[56] Ibid.

[57] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 92.

[58] Ibid.

[59] Ibid.

[60] Ibid.

[61] Arnold Dieter, Lanny Bell, Ragnhild Bjerre Finnestad, Gerhard Haeny, Byron E. Shafer, Temples of Ancient Egypt, edited by Byron E. Shafer, (Cornell University Press: New York, 1997), 232.

[62] Ibid.

[63] Ibid.

[64] Arnold Dieter, Lanny Bell, Ragnhild Bjerre Finnestad, Gerhard Haeny, Byron E. Shafer, Temples of Ancient Egypt, edited by Byron E. Shafer, (Cornell University Press: New York, 1997), 233.

[65] Arnold Dieter, Lanny Bell, Ragnhild Bjerre Finnestad, Gerhard Haeny, Byron E. Shafer, Temples of Ancient Egypt, edited by Byron E. Shafer, (Cornell University Press: New York, 1997), 236.

[66] Ibid.

[67] Ibid.

[68] Arnold Dieter, Lanny Bell, Ragnhild Bjerre Finnestad, Gerhard Haeny, Byron E. Shafer, Temples of Ancient Egypt, edited by Byron E. Shafer, (Cornell University Press: New York, 1997), 228.

[69] Otto, Priester und Tempel [n.130], 1:87-90, quoted in Arnold, Dieter, Lanny Bell, Ragnhild Bjerre Finnestad, Gerhard Haeny, Byron E. Shafer, Temples of Ancient Egypt, edited by Byron E. Shafer, (Cornell University Press, New York, 1997),228.

[70] Arnold Dieter, Lanny Bell, Ragnhild Bjerre Finnestad, Gerhard Haeny, Byron E. Shafer, Temples of Ancient Egypt, edited by Byron E. Shafer, (Cornell University Press: New York, 1997), 228.

[71] Ibid.

[72] Ibid.

[73] Arnold Dieter, Lanny Bell, Ragnhild Bjerre Finnestad, Gerhard Haeny, Byron E. Shafer, Temples of Ancient Egypt, edited by Byron E. Shafer, (Cornell University Press: New York, 1997), 229.

[74] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 245.

[75] Ibid.

[76] Ibid.

[77] Ibid.

[78] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 246.

[79] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 247.

[80] Ibid.

[81] Ibid.

[82] Ibid.

[83] Ibid.

[84] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 218.

[85] Ibid.

[86] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 224-225.

[87] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 227.

[88] Ibid.

[89] Ibid.

[90] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 196-197.

[91] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 197.

[92] Ibid.

[93] Ibid.

[94] Ibid.

[95] Ibid.

[96] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 199.

[97] Michel M Austin, The Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest: A Selection of Ancient Sources in Translation, (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 434.

[98] Michel M Austin, The Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest: A Selection of Ancient Sources in Translation, (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 434-435.

[99] Ibid.

[100] Ibid.

[101] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 199.

[102] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 252.

[103] Ibid.

[104] Ibid.

[105] Ibid.

[106] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 253.

[107] Gunther Holbl, A History of Ptolemaic Empire, translated by Tina Saavedra, (Routledge Ltd, New York, 2001), 78-86.

[108] Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson Inc., New York, 2000), 87-92.

[109] Jean Bingen, Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2007), 253.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s